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194                                      FLOKA   INDICA.
Melastomacea, and Begonia, which form so conspicuous a
part of the vegetation of the humid eastern Himalaya, occur
in very small numbers in Kumaon, rapidly diminish to the
westward, and scarcely extend beyond the Satlej. Streptoli-
rion and Adenocaulon, two of Mr. Edgfcworth's most remark-
able discoveries in the Simla Himalaya, which there find their
western limit, are in like manner Sikkim forms. Balanophora
also extends west as far as the Satlej, while Colquhounia and
Heterophragma have not been found west of Kumaon.
; The cultivation of fruit-trees affords a remarkable exempli-
fication of the difference between the climate of the Eastern
and Western Himalaya. In Sikkim no European fruit of
any kind, save the strawberry, comes to perfection; even the
peach, the only commonly cultivated tree, does not ripen
its fruit, and the apricot, the most abundant "Western Hi-
malayan fruit, is unknown. In central Nipal, apples., figs,
peaches, quinces, and apricots, all ripen, but hardly arrive at
perfection. Towards the interior of Kumaon apricots and
all the above fruits become abundant, with the pear and
cherry; and from Kumaon westward, vineyards and large
orchards form a conspicuous feature in the scenery of all
interior temperate valleys.
Of the cerealia, Wheat and Barley are the staple crops (as
throughout Northern India); the various millets and rice
are however cultivated in hot valleys at all elevations below
5-6000 feet, with occasionally maize and sugar-cane. Buck-
wheat is grown at 5-80QO feet, and the various Amaranthacea
of the Eastern Himalaya extend also to the Western. The
cultivation of Tea on the slopes of the outer ranges of Ku-
maon and Kulu appears to be increasing with great rapidity,
and promises to be eminently successful.
The coniferous trees which are common to the Eastern
and the Western Himalaya areó1. Pinus longifotia, which is
found on drier exposures from 7000 as low as 2000 feet,
and extends to the mountains of Hindu Kush. 2. P. exceha,
which occurs in all parts of the Himalaya (except Sikkim),